Generally, monastic settlements were surrounded by a circular boundary wall called a vallum, which acted as a frontier between the holy world within and the secular world outside. They often contained a church, graveyard, high crosses, monk`s cells and from the late 10th century round towers also became a feature.
The first church at Kells was completed by 814 and in 878 the relics of St. Columba were relocated from Iona, which was now prospering. However, Kells itself was raided by the Vikings in 919, 950 and 969, and many times throughout the 11th century, this time by the Irish. The most famous treasure created by the community of St. Columba is the Book of Kells, a highly ornate version of the four gospels in Latin. It was written around the year 800, though it remains unclear whether it was written in whole or part at Kells.
Although Kells became an important Anglo-Norman walled settlement, it is its monastic heritage that best survives. ‘Kells` round tower, though roofless, stands at height of 25m. In 1076 Murchadh Mac Flainn, who was fighting for the High Kingship of Ireland, was murdered in the tower. The tower is surrounded by several finely carved high crosses, in various states of preservation. A stone church known as St. Columba`s House, dating from the 9th century is possibly the oldest surviving structure in the town. It is a classic example of an early Irish church with a steeply pointed stone roof.
The Kells Courthouse was originally designed in 1801 by Francis Johnson, who also designed the GPO on O`Connell St. Dublin, and it is now the Kells Courthouse Tourism and Cultural Hub.
The Market Cross of Kells, which dates from the 9th century and depicts scenes from the Old and New Testaments, can be seen outside the Courthouse.
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